CHAPTER SUMMARY (11.01-11.72): Examining More Grounds, Unifying The Troops
[11.01] The principles of warfare are: There are dispersive ground,* marginal ground, contentious ground, open ground, intersecting ground, critical ground, difficult ground, surrounded ground, and deadly ground.
[11.02] Where the rulers do battle in their own ground, this is called dispersive ground. Where one enters the other's ground but not deep, this is called marginal ground. Where it is advantageous if you occupy it and it is advantageous if the enemy occupies it, this is called contentious ground. Where one can come and go, this is called open ground.
[11.03] Where ground is surrounded by others, and the first one to reach it will gain the support of the masses, this is called intersecting ground. Where one enters deep into enemy ground, with many walled cities and towns to his back, this is called critical ground. Where there are mountains and forests, defiles and ravines, swamps and wetlands, and places difficult to pass, this is called difficult ground.
[11.04] Where the entrance is narrow, the exit circuitous, allowing the enemy to attack his few to our many,* this is called surrounded ground. Where if one who does battle with full force survives,* and one who does not do battle with full force perishes, this is called deadly ground.
[11.05] Therefore, on dispersive ground, do not do battle.
[11.06] On marginal ground, do not stop [yourself; go all the way into enemy land].
[11.07] On contentious ground, do not attack.
[11.08] On open ground, do not become separated.
[11.09] On intersecting ground, form alliances.
[11.10] On critical ground, plunder.
[11.11] On difficult ground, press on.
[11.12] On surrounded ground, be prepared.
[11.13] On deadly ground, do battle.
11.01 dispersive ground.... The chapter begins with nine more types of ground:
11.04 attack his few to our many. The entrance is narrow, so few of his soldiers can attack at a time.
battle with full force survives. The ground is deadly—the full army must fight for it to survive.